Vindication of the Rights of Woman Redux

Below are the sections for your explication. They roughly correspond to one page of the printed version (see yesterday’s post):

Section 1, pg. 1 (beginning to “…and only rely on God.”)

Section 2, pg. 1-2 (“Yet in teh following lines…tell us the consequences”)

Section 3, pg. 2-3 (“Many are the causes…or opinions analyzed.”

Section 4, pg. 3-4 (“May not the same remark…their true, sober light.”)

Section 5, pg. 4-5 (“Probably the prevailing opinion…like infirmities with herself.”)

Section 6, pg. 5-6 (“The worthy Dr. Gregory…elude a slight glance of inquiry.”)

Section 7, pg. 6-7 (“Love, the common passion…appetites of human nature.”)

Section 8, pg. 7-8 (“Noble morality…individuals regal sway.”)

Section 9, pg. 8-9 (“As a philosopher…enraptured mind.”)

Section 10, pg. 9-10 (“If, I say, for I would not impress…” to end)

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78 responses to “Vindication of the Rights of Woman Redux

  1. Ashley Gorney and Kevin Cline

    8A: If a woman’s goal is to find a husband, she is not worthy of knowledge; if she wants to learn, she will not do everything her husband wishes.
    8B: Dr. Gregory wrote about true love, but in reality it is just a consensual partnership.
    8C: If women were educated, they might not yearn for a husband, they could be just as happy alone because they could support themselves.
    8D: Men see women as their slaves.
    8E: Women are considered successful in society if they are submissive to their husbands and act weak so they can protect them.
    8F: Women must always be cheery and make men happy because that is their life’s purpose.
    8G: Women are not benefitted by acting frail.

    • Ashley Gorney and Kevin Cline

      8B/8D: Dr. John Gregory was a moralist and the first physician in Scotland. He wrote A Father’s Legacy To His Daughters after his wife died.
      8E: Vide Rosseau and Emmanuel Swedenborg wrote On Marriages in Heaven and On the Nature of Heavenly Conjugal Love. Both wished to stop reason for both sexes.

      • Ashley Gorney and Kevin Cline

        Paltry-utterly worthless
        Vapid-lacking sharpness or flavor
        Forbearance-refraining from something
        Deity-a god or a goddess

      • Ashley Gorney and Kevin Cline

        The major type of logical appeal is concession/refutation. For example, “The question is, whether it procures most pain or pleasure? The answer will decide the propriety of Dr. Gregory’s advice, and she how absurd and tyrannic it is thus to lay down a system of slavery…” (8D).
        A type of emotional appeal is figurative language. For example, “…smiling under the lash at which it dare not snarl. Abject as this picture appears, it is the portrait of an accomplished woman, according to the received opinion of female excellence…” (8E).
        The use of concession and refutation shows the opposing viewpoint but reveals why her opinion is better. Her comparison of other works with her own opinion develops an ethical appeal because it proves she did her research and read up on opposing opinions to further develop her own. She was a well-known feminist and did her research to form her feminist opinions.

  2. ANGELA AND NICOLETTE

    9A: A woman is supposed to find a husband and be loved but not get respect, or else she will be seen as masculine.
    9B: The most successful women in society are the ones that are able to act more like men, in the sense that they think and act for themselves.
    9C: Men degrade women to the point where they are only seen as possessions not people.
    9D: Women are only seen as a companion for man, not as an independent person.
    9E: Someone who sacrifices morals for efficiency can’t be trusted.
    9F: A woman’s destiny is to always be a dependent person.

    • ANGELA AND NICOLETTE

      9F: From the poem Hans Carvel written by the poet and diplomat Matthew Prior.

      • NICOLETTE AND ANGELA

        9F: Adamantine: unyielding or firm in attitude or opinion.

        Logical Appeal: The major type of logical appeal in this section is analyzing. She analyzes how women are degraded and what brought them to the level of inferiority. For example, “I shall only insist that men have increased the inferiority till women are almost sunk below the standard of rational creatures.”
        Emotional Appeal: The major type of logical appeal in this section is rhetorical questions. She asks a lot of rhetorical questions to further enhance her point and message. For example, “Do passive indolent women make the best wives? Confining out discussion to the present moment of existence, let us see how such weak creatures perform their part? Do the women who, by the attainment of few superficial accomplishments, have strengthened the prevailing prejudice merely contribute to the happiness of their husbands? Do they display their charms merely to amuse them?”
        Ethical Appeal: She doesn’t really have a lot of ethical appeal because she’s clearly biased. Not only is she a feminist, she’s a woman herself. She’s clearly very passionate about this topic and so therefore cannot have ethical appeal because she is biased. For example: “For they are bound by the adamantine chain of destiny is most certain, if it be proved that they are never to exercise their own reason never to be independent, never to rise above opinion, or to feel the dignity of a rational will that only bows to God.”

  3. Devon Beck and Michael Keenan

    1b
    Empheron- short lived
    Triflers- little value
    Specious- good but lacking merit
    1c
    Mahometan- a western name
    1e
    indefeasible- not to be annulled or void

  4. Cassie Hoffman and Maggie Sinclair

    7A. Love leads people astray from the more important things such as friendship and respect.
    7B. Passions provide temporary content, but fade.
    7C. A husband and wife should not fall to these passions or they will not be able to fulfill their life together.
    7D. True wisdom stems from ideas greater than passion and the family and focuses on greater concepts like respect.
    7E. Love has no great effect on life, thus knowledge must rise above that emotion.
    7F. Wollstonecraft contradicts Rousseau’s belief that passion is immortal.
    7G. Wollstonecraft presents Dr. Gregory’s belief that women should not be educated in order to achieve their ultimate goal of marriage.

    • Cassie Hoffman and Maggie Sinclair

      Footnote 1, 7F: Rousseau makes his character Eloisa, in his novel Rousseau’s Eloisa fall in love will an other character saying that love, a passion, will live forever.
      Footnote 2, 7G: Dr. Gregory says that women should not be educated because it would harm their chances at finding a husband.

      • Logical Appeal: Wollstonecraft uses Logical appeal with the use of many techniques, the main one is citing from other sources, such as Dr. John Gregory and Rousseau to use as the base for her thesis. For example, a statement from Dr. Gregory, “Dr. Gregory’s advice respecting delicacy of sentiment, which he advises a woman not to acquire, if she have determined to marry” Wollstonecraft uses this statement for evidence to contradicts the thesises of men like Dr. Gregory and Rousseau by adding examples of her own, thus proving her point over her others’ thesises.

        Emotional Appeal: Wollstonecraft uses many techniques but one of the minor ones is vivid descriptions, in her example for love, Wollstonecraft states that love is, ‘the common passion, in which chance and sensation take place of choice and reason, is, in some degree, felt by the mass of mankind; for it is not necessary to speak, at present, of the emotions that rise above or sink below love. This passion, naturally increased by suspense and difficulties, draws the mind out of its accustomed state, and exalts the affections”. Wollstonecraft decripes love as somkmething commen, not special, and the down fall of men. With examples like this she makes her point by effecting people emotional attachment to the word ‘love’.

        Wollstonecraft uses logical, emotional, and ethical appeal to not only win the respect and attention of her readers but to establish herself as a knowledgeable and well informed person. History can tell us that Wollstonecraft was not one of the majority but of the minor, well educated class that fought for her tittle of creditblity with essays, papers, and life experences. For example, Through out her life, Wollstonecraft suffered from many events such as being abandoned over and over by the men that she loved, which may had lead to influence her book Vindication of the rights of women. With this knowledge anyone can see the truth in Wollstonecraft’s writing and understand the key pionts she mades for the rights of education for women.

      • Cassie Hoffman and Maggie Sinclair

        7B Dotard: a person in a state of senile decay marked by decline of mental poise and alertness.
        7E Coquettish: sincere affection to gain the attention and admiration of men
        7F Concomitant: accompanying especially in a subordinate or incidental way

  5. Emma Clark and Mia Ma

    3A- There are many things in society that contributes to the oppression of women, one of them being the most prominent being their neglect of order.
    3B- Since women’s education is very disorderly and not as exact as a man’s education, women are unable to reason past only doing things they have done before.
    3C- Women mainly gain knowledge from observation while men can experience it, and even if a woman wishes to learn, she must always keep it subordinate to other activities.
    3D- Even though soldiers and women have the same education through observation, they don’t have the same rights or respect.
    3E- Transition into making a political remark.
    3F- Women are compared to soldiers since they both lack strong passions and live a life in which they are taught to please.
    3G- Due to acquiring rules before their own ideals, both soldiers and women blindly submit to authority and are unable to analyze profound ideas.

  6. Emma Clark and Mia Ma

    Vocabulary

    3C- Desultory- haphazard, random
    3C- Enervated- to destroy the strength of

  7. Emma Clark and Mia Ma

    Appeals

    Logical Appeal- comparison (analogy) between women and soldiers, found within paragraphs 3D, 3F, and 3G. “It may be further observed, that officers are also particularly attentive to their persons, fond of dancing, crowded rooms, adventures, and ridicule. Like the fair sex, the business of their lives is gallantry.-They were taught to please, and they only live to please.”
    Emotional Appeal- Rhetorical question, found within paragraph 3D- “But can the crude fruit of casual observation, never brought to the test of judgment, formed by comparing speculation and experience, deserve such a distinction?”
    The Vindication of the Rights of Woman is an extremely persuasive piece. Mary Wollstonecraft incorporates strong, impactful vocabulary and language in an effective emotional appeal. Her ethical appeal consists of an extended analogy comparing the knowledge of soldiers and women and contrasting their rights. Her logical appeal, however, comprises of a combination of factors. Her effective use of ethical appeals works to strengthen her cause and therefore her logical appeal. Another part of her logical appeal would be Wollstonecraft’s own experiences with her tyrannical father who abused her mother.

  8. Nick LaFave and Danielle Duggan

    5A: The bible suggests that women were created for the “convience or pleasure” of men.

    5B: Stonecraft wishes to disprove the image that men are able to attain a greater degree of virtue than women.

    5C: Women cannot attain virtue without wisdom.

    5D: She has been told that women will lose graces and high opinions if they gain wisdom.

    5E: She questions why women are seen as simply to work towards love and lust.

    5F: She doesn’t want to talk low of love but believes that love creates more problems than it solves.

    5G: Old traditions have taught women that the most important education step they can take in their youth is to make themselves pleasing enough to be married later on.

    5H: Old tradition does not realize that after a while, a woman’s ability to please fades and she have nothing left.

    5I: She thinks that a woman’s main goal in life should be to make herself respectable, not just to please her husband.

  9. 2A: Wollstonecraft shifts to a quote by Milton where Adam questions his Maker, which supports her stand.
    2B: Transitions to a contrast between society’s ideal woman and Wollstonecraft’s ideal woman.
    2C: Men are brought up to think and reason, while women, once realizing their disadvantage, may only begin to learn without guidance.
    2D: Men and women are educated by society and popular opinion, and only when society changes will the education of women improve.
    2E: The ideal education, which cannot be obtained until the values of society are enlightened by reason, teaches independence gained through virtue, obtained through reason.
    2F: Wollstonecraft states that she has just as much of a right to state her opinion as anyone else.
    2G: Men do not possess all of the wisdom credited to them by Rousseau—they behave like children, blindly leading their wives.

  10. Alyssa Swigart and Clare Hudock

    4a. If women become more educated they will no longer be easily controlled by men, specifically their husbands.
    4b. Women who satisfy their husband’s wants for a complacent wife are viewed more as their property than a respected equal.
    4c. Women have to choose whether they’d like to be regarded as an equal or as someone who can’t stand on their own without their husband’s approval.
    4d. Rousseau believes that women’s natural purpose is to be an obedient and pleasing companion to men.
    4e. Wollstonecraft asks when a man will look past the usual standards of women and begin to judge women by the same standards to which men are held.
    4f. Moral character cannot be judged by the simple tasks given to a man or woman, yet they need note that both parties are necessary for having children.

  11. Nick LaFave and Danielle Duggan

    Section 5, Paragraph E:
    “Yet ne’er so sure our passion to create,
    ‘As when she touch’d the brink of all we hate.”

    This quote is from Alexander Pope’s “Epistle to a Lady” poem written in 1743. Pope was an 18th century English poet.

  12. FOOTNOTES
    2A: From Paradise Lost by John Milton. It is a poem concerning the tale of Adam and Eve, written to “justify the ways of God to men”.
    2E, 2G: From Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality by Rousseau, who believed that man is naturally good but has been corrupted by society.

  13. Nick LaFave and Danielle Duggan

    Antiquity- A specified historical period during the ancient past.

    Subjugate- Bring under domination or control.

    Insipid- Lacking qualities that excite, stimulate, or interest.

  14. Alyssa Swigart and Clare Hudock

    In section 4 paragraphs b and d Wallstonecraft alludes to Emile, a book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who was a philosopher and writer in the 18th century.

  15. Alyssa Swigart and Clare Hudock

    Despotism – A form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power.
    Cyphers – Code, or to convert ordinary language into code.
    Effaces – Erases a mark from a surface.

  16. Nick LaFave and Danielle Duggan

    Section 5 Logical Appeal: Examples, Stonecraft uses many examples of old traditions to explain their flaws. “Probably the prevailing opinion, that woman was created for man, may have take its rise from Moses’s poetical story;”

    Section 5 Emotional Appeal: Rhetorical Questions, Stonecraft uses rhetorical questions to evoke emotion from the reader. “Will she then have sufficient native energy to look into herself for comfort, and cultivate her dormant faculties?”

    Section 5 Argument Analysis: In this section, Stonecraft’s argument is backed up with logical appeal. Stonecraft mainly tries explain to the reader what image society has portrayed for women and logically explains why it must be changed. Also, Stonecraft includes cited facts from historical sources that help appeal to the reader’s logical and emotional senses. Rhetorical questions are also included as emotional appeal that enhances the piece. Stonecraft’s background in women’s rights proves the legitimacy of her argument and serves as ethical appeal. Throughout section 5, Stonecraft uses multiple appeals to prove her argument.

  17. Devin Prasatek and Michelle McClosky

    Summaries
    1A:
    Men would wrongly argue that women do not have sufficient strength of mind to acquire what really deserves the name of virtue.
    1B:
    Women are held back by prejudice because from early age, they are taught to uphold only “feminine” qualities which would attract a man to them.
    1C:
    John Milton implies that women are nothing more than soulless, docile beings meant to gratify the senses of man.
    1D:
    To try and preserve innocence and softness of women, men would have them remain always in a state of childhood.
    1E:
    Women must be allowed to gain knowledge because innocence is only a form of weakness when found in adults instead of children.
    1F:
    Children should look up to women who always rely on God as children must too.

  18. Devin Prasatek and Michelle McClosky

    Footnotes
    1C:
    John Milton was an English poet from the 1600s
    1D:
    Lord Bacon was a philosopher among other things during the late 1500 and early 1600s.
    Rousseau was a philosopher and writer from the 18th century.
    1E:
    The quote is from Milton’s greatest work, Paradise Lost

  19. Devin Prasatek and Michelle McClosky

    Appeals

    The major type of logical appeal would have been the contrast between what men say and what she believes. In paragraph two, she says, “Men complain, and with reason, of the follies and caprices of our sex, when they do not keenly satirize our headstrong passions and groveling vices” (Wollstonecraft 2). An example of emotional appeal would be the allusion to Eve with “our first frail mother” (Wollstonecraft 3).
    Part of the persuasiveness of the argument comes from the concessions and refutations Wollstonecraft uses. Also she has multiple logical and emotional appeals. Her background helps persuade when you take into account that the women in her life who had all the “necessary” femininity were abused by their husbands.

  20. Alyssa Swigart and Clare Hudock

    Logical:
    Wallstonecraft frequently references Emile by Jean-Jacques Rosseau. For example she writes, “I now principally allude to Rousseau, for his character of Sophia is, undoubtedly, a captivating one, though it appears to me grossly unnatural.”
    Emotional:
    Wallstonecraft uses the rhetorical question “When will a great man arise with sufficient strength of mind to puff away the fumes which pride and sensuality have thus spread over the subject” to serve as emotional appeal in the piece.
    Wallstonecraft’s argument effectively persuades the reader because she uses logical appeal through referencing the well-known philosopher Rousseau throughout the piece, and also uses emotional appeal through rhetorical questions and parallelism. She develops ethos by presenting examples and references and by refuting the opposing view.

  21. VOCABULARY
    Expostulate, 2A: to reason earnestly with someone against something that person intends to do or has done.

  22. The major logical appeal of Section 2 exists in Wollstonecraft’s comparisons between men and women. In paragraph 2F and 2G, she contrasts the roles of the two sexes in society.
    2F: “…all the writers who have written on the subject of female education…have contributed to render women more artificial, weak characters, than they would otherwise have been; and, consequently, more useless members of society.”
    2G: “…it might be proper, in order to make a man and his wife one, that she should rely entirely on his understanding.”
    Her emotional appeal exists in the form of rhetorical questions, which she uses to emphasize her argument.
    2D: “It is, however, sufficient for my present purpose to assert, that, till society be differently constituted, much cannot be expected from education. It is, however, sufficient for my present purpose to assert, that, whatever effect circumstances have on the abilities, every being may become virtuous by the exercise of its own reason; for if but one being was created with the vicious inclinations, that is positively bad, what can save us from atheism? Or if we worship a God, is not that God a devil?”
    Wollstonecraft makes a very persuasive argument—she supports every claim with solid evidence from various sources, also refuting the arguments made by the opposition to gender equality. With this strong logical reasoning she interlaces appropriate emotional appeal, including rhetorical questions and dry humor. Her literary standing at the time—she “moved in the same circles as Thomas Paine, Joseph Priestley, Samuel Coleridge, William Wordsworth, William Blake, and William Godwin” (About.com)—as well as her experiences as what she might call an “enlightened” woman qualify her to take such a stance on women’s equality. She was inspired by the talks of her peers regarding the rights of man to write A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, drawing many of her arguments from their content.

  23. Devon Beck and Michael Keenan

    “Man is of kin to the beasts by his body: and if he be not of kin to God by his spirit, he is a base and ignoble creature!” This quote was written by Lord Bacon and is apart of his novel God and Atheism. Who was an author and a former member of parliament.

  24. Devon Beck and Michael Keenan

    Footnotes

    1c John Milton is a poet that has written a variety of 17th century literature.
    1d “Man is of kin to the beasts by his body: and if he be not of kin to God by his spirit, he is a base and ignoble creature!” This quote was written by Lord Bacon and is incorperated in his novel God and Atheism.

    1d Jean-Jacques Rousseau is a French Philosopher and Educationalist.

  25. Soojin Chun and Elisa Itakura

    3A: Corrupt state of society contributes to some women’s rebellious behavior.
    3B: Because of lack of education, women are prone to rely on common sense, therefore exceeding their capability more than men in that realm.
    3C: Women are based on real life and their experiences, while men rely more on literal education; women’s philosophies are more adaptable to real life.
    3D: Men and women are equal in ability to accept education; the only thing holding them back is liberty.
    3E: Although this is not directly related to her stance, she wishes to make an additional remark.
    3F: A parallelism between soldiers and women; controversial that men also like to please, not just the women.
    3G: Most women, not including her, submit to a greater force and are likely to be affected by social prejudice.

  26. Soojin Chun and Elisa Itakura

    Precept: A commandment or direction given as a rule of action or conduct
    Epithet: Any word or phrase applied to a noun to describe an actual or attributed quality
    Baneful: Destructive, deadly, and poisonous
    Desultory: Lacking in consistency, constancy, or visible order; disconnected, fitful
    Corporeal: Of the nature of the physical body; bodily
    Enervated: Without vigor, force, or strength; languid
    Sagacity: Acuteness of mental discernment and soundness of judgment
    Punctilious: Strict or exact in the observance of the formalities or amenities of conduct or actions

  27. Soojin Chun and Elisa Itakura

    No references to any person or quote in this section

  28. Soojin Chun and Elisa Itakura

    The major type of logical appeal found in section 3 comparison, or analogy between the qualities of soldiers and women.
    “It may be further observed, that officers are also particularly attentive to their persons, fond of dancing, crowded rooms, adventures, and ridicule. Like the fair sex, the business of their lives is gallantry. They were taught to please, and they only live to please.” 3F
    The major type of emotional appeal found in section 3 is imagery of what a soldier experiences and his acquired knowledge during his service.
    “The consequences are similar; soldiers acquire a little superficial knowledge, snatched from the muddy current of conversation, and, from continually mixing with society, they gain, what is termed knowledge of the world; and this acquaintance with manners and customs has frequently been confounded with knowledge of the human heart. But can the crude fruit of casual observation, never brought to the test of judgment, formed by comparing speculation and experience, deserve such a distinction?” 3D
    Wollstonecraft’s argument can be seen as highly persuasive. Her logical appeal seems the most dominant throughout section 3. Her analogy between women and soldiers seems to bring about the controversial topic of woman’s equality in a way that cannot be denied its rationality. Other forms include the emotional appeal in her imagery of a soldier’s tendency to “snatch” knowledge, and its similarities to women and their incapability to receive proper education. Finally her ethical appeal wraps up the story, and gives Wollstonecraft a voice in her argument. Her tone can be determined as rationally objective, a feature that is further emphasized to point out that women can be as logical and cool-minded as men.

  29. Vishal Kalbavi and Ben Li

    6A: She states her position against Dr. Gregory’s views of how women should be raised.
    6B: Although Gregory advises a fondness for dress, she suggests that this fondness is not natural, but comes from a man’s love for power.
    6C: She concedes women are made to lie and do things out of the evil, not the “gaiety”, of the heart.
    6D: The weakness that men thrust upon women make them more dependent and do not allow for true friendship, equality, or “noble pursuits.”
    6E: She ponders about why women waste their lives away dreaming instead of asserting themselves to independence.
    6F: By asserting herself, a woman can become more independent and a “friend” of her husband rather than just relying on him.
    6G: Dr. Gregory mars the natural relationship between husband and wife by insisting that the wife should hide her love from her husband instead of joining in true friendship or love.
    6H: She concludes her argument by claiming that these truths should be obvious if one questions the norm.

  30. Vishal Kalbavi and Ben Li

    Foonotes:
    6B,C,G Dr. Gregory: A famous moralist and medical writer. He believed that the most important aspects of human nature were reason and instinct.
    6F,G From Father’s Legacy to his Daughters, by Dr. Gregory: He proposes that woman should refrain from revealing any knowledge that they had because it damages their chances of attaining a good relationship with a man. Also, he suggests proper moral conduct for woman and that women should focus on marriage, not friendship, as an “interaction with man.”

  31. Vishal Kalbavi and Ben Li

    Definitions:

    Dissimulation (6C) – The act of deceiving; feigning

    Affectation (6D)- Showing pretend feelings; characterized by artificiality

  32. The major type of logical appeal that appears throughout section one is the classification and division between men and women. For example when Wollstonecraft states, “Men, indeed appear to me to act in a very unphilosophical manner when they try to secure the good conduct of women by attempting to keep them always in a state of childhood,” she classifies men’s actions toward women and how men ususally treat and generalize them (3d). She uses the word ‘childhood’ to explicate that men treat women in a naive and a “triflic” manner.
    Also, the major type of emotional appeal that occurs throughout the section is a strong connotative language that Wollstonecraft uses to express her anger of discrimination. An excellent example of this is when she says, “How grossly do they insult us who thus advise us only to render ourselves, gentle domestic brutes!” (3d). She uses grossly to incorperate disgust with men and with this disgust refers to women as domestic brutes to degrade such as men do.
    The emotional, logical, and ethical appeal that Wollstonecraft uses is very persuasive. Her emotional and appeal of classifying men as discriminative towards women promotes a common hatred among the audience (primarily women) towards men’s actions. Also, with the combination of her logical appeal stating that women are almost slaves for men and showing this with the use of the words “domestic brutes.” Her ethical appeal is not very apparent through section one though Wollstonecraft by herself is a model example of experiencing the discrimination towards men. She has been treated as a domestic brute her entire life because she lived throughout the 18th century as a woman. From this she create a school for girls and helped many women escape abusive husbands. From her experiences she creates strong emotional, logical and ethical appeal.

  33. michaelmarn

    10A: She doesn’t want women to be treated like slaves, dependent on man, rather, she wants them to be free, dependent on God.
    10B: She is saying that if women were given an opportunity to be equal and they failed, the superiority of man would be made clear.
    10C: She acknowledges these are high hopes for women, yet, she believes God has given her the strength to succeed.
    10D: She loves man but man does not love her.
    10E: Although women have physical virtues that should give them a short-lived control, they have been stripped of basic human rights.
    10F: The few men that are in power have influenced thousands to think as they do.
    10G: Brutal force governs the world and politics are still in its infancy.
    10H: Shecloses with saying women will become more wise and virtuous.

  34. Jiyong and Emily

    5A: Women are apparently created for man according to biblical stories.
    5B: Although Men are seen as higher people, it doesn’t mean their morals and virtues are any higher.
    5C: Women are entitled to an education like Men.
    5D: People argue that women would lose their feminine touch if they have an equal opportunity.
    5E: A Woman’s existance isn’t based off of love and lust.
    5F: Women are not only emotional creatures, however women are also logical.
    5G: Women mature to a certain point in the eyes of Men, and that is why Women are only seen for pleasure.
    5H: Women based off of love and charm alone fades once time passes by.
    5I: Therefore, women should be allowed to be more respectful rather than being a pleasing item for her husband.

  35. Jiyong and Emily

    Paragraph 5D: FOOTNOTES:
    “Yet ne’er so sure our passion to create,
    ‘As when she touch’d the brink of all we hate.”
    -Alexander Pope

    Alexander Pope was an 18th Century English poet. This quote came from a
    section of Pope’s poem called, “Epistle to a Lady” written in 1743.

    Moses, Adam, and Eve, are Characters referenced from the Bible.

    Quixote Cervantes was a novel written during the Spanish Golden age written by Miguel de Cervantes.

    Rousseau was a Genevan Philosopher, writer, and composer of 18th Century literature.

  36. Jiyong and Emily

    Section 5 Logical Appeal: Wollstonecraft uses many logical appears in this section. For example, in paragraph 5I, she starts off the paragraph with a strong, clear claim using her own personal experience as a women.
    “But, whether she be loved or neglected, her first wish should be to make herself respectable, and not to rely for all her happiness on a being subject to like infirmities within herself.”

    Section 5 Emotional appeal: Wallstonecraft uses diction and imagery to try and create a bond between the author and the reader. In paragraph 5H, Wallstonecraft uses emotional appeal to compare/contrast the life of a typical women and men. “Will she have the sufficient native energy to look into herself for comfort, and cultivate her dormant faculties? Or, is it not more rational to expect that she will try to please other men; and, in the emotions raised by the expectation of new conquests, endeavor to forget the mortification her love or pride has recieved?”

    Argumental Analysis: Wallstonecraft uses an even amount of Logical and Emotional appeal to enhance her writing style in order to prove her point. She uses a lot of diction and compare/contrast to relate how the lives of an ideal women is and how they were effected even in past history. Wallstonecraft also uses Logical appeal by claiming her point by using her own personal experience as a women. In addition, she is generous with the opposition and states their points and ideas in her essay. However, she counterargues them by explaining her point of views and not oversimplifying her arguments. She uses a Rhetoric style throughout the passage and she uses many striking vocabulary words to enhance her emotional appeal.

  37. 6A- Dr. Gregory did not raise his daughters properly.
    6B- “Feminine” practices and habits, such as the “fondness for dress”, are unnatural and encouraged, rather than natural female inclinations.
    6C- Why must a woman hide the true feelings and potential of herself when the only gain is a positive opinion that she does not care for anyways?
    6D- Women should not have to appear sickly in order to get affection from their husbands, rather, their husbands should love and respect women for their capabilities.
    6E- Life is too short for women to allow themselves to be used as an object of pleasure or beauty, rather than pursue meaningful goals and manly virtues.
    6F- A woman who projects her strength of mind and body will neither depend solely upon her husband, nor require beauty or a gentle demeanor to excite passion in her spouse.
    6G- Dr. Gregory’s advice is bad because there is no way to have a constant love, because the degree of love fluctuates; having a true friendship with your husband is most substantial.
    6H- The fact that “the most holy band of society is friendship” is truth and should not be questioned on any set of moral standards.

    • Graham Key and Mark Hosseini

      Mrs. Martin, please disregard this post and instead grade the one authored under the name of this reply.

  38. Devon & Marley

    Summary of Section 4
    4a) Being treated as objects leads women into blind obedience which can only end through education.
    4b) In popular culture and in literature women are portrayed as frail both in the mind and the flesh.
    4c) Because of this women are either treated as weaklings or equals but nothing in between.
    4d) Concession: Rousseau claims women should never be independent or be free thinkers because it makes them less attractive.
    4e) Refutation: If women are inferior they must be in the same category, but, since they are in different categories women are not inferior.
    4f) In the grander sense, women and men have the same purpose in life, to promote the survival of the species.

  39. Devon & Marley

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher in the 18th century who greatly influenced the French revolution and subsequent reconstruction. His treatise Emile: or On Education, received criticism from feminists because it portrayed women as domestic bound objects, especially through his character Sophie. This reference is seen in section 4.

  40. Devon & Marley

    Logical appeal: Concession refutation seen in paragraphs 4b through 4e. In the quotation, “What nonsense! When will a great man arise with sufficient strength of mind to puff away the fumes which pride and sensuality have thus spread over the subject!” she refutes the ideas that she previously explained from the opposing point of view.

    Emotional appeal- Use of 1st person point of view and direct address to the reader is an emotional appeal. This can be seen in the quotation, “Let us examine this question.”

    The general effectiveness of the argument is weak. There are Either-Or fallacies, seen in the presentation of the idea that women are either seen as equal or seen as subordinate. Also, there are faulty cause and effects, seen in the idea that treatment causes stupidity.

  41. Dr. Hastie Lanyon Represents Graham Key and Mark Hosseini.

  42. Mark Hosseini & Graham Key

    Persons Mentioned
    o Dr. John Gregory – 18th century physician and moralist who believed that educated women would have a harder time attracting a husband than an uneducated woman.

    o Solomon – A king of Israel and prophet who over the course of his life had about 700 wives.

    o Jean-Jacques Rousseau – 18th century philosopher, writer and composer who believed that women should be educated only for the pleasure of men

  43. Paragraph 10A: This paragraph illustrates the authors pursuing the freedom of women to become independent of man, and to rely on God.
    Paragraph 10B: The author states here that women must be allowed inalienable rights, regardless of their mental capacity compared to men.
    Paragraph 10C: However naïve the hopes of womankind may be, they are necessary, according to the will of God.
    Paragraph 10D: The author reveals her respect for the individuals of men, yet not the superiority of a gender.
    Paragraph 10E: Years of the misconception of women have made womankind appear accessories to life, rather than equal beings.
    Paragraph 10F: Women are subject to inferiority when they live the same life as man, under the same king, under the same God and law.
    Paragraph 10G: Politics and reason have no effect on the world, whereas it is “brutal force” and discrimination that rules society.
    Paragraph 10H: As long as freedom and democracy continue to grow, then men and women will progress in unity and equality.

  44. Salutary (10A) – helpful, wholesome.
    Homage (10D) – to pay respect, publicly or formally acknowledges.
    Servility (10E) – oppression, enslavement.
    Insulated (10E) – separate, or to segregate.
    Diffuse (10H) – to spread, continue to grow.
    Impunity (10F) – exemption from punishment.

  45. Logos- The main type of logical appeal in this section is examples.
    “China is not the only country where a living man has been made a God. “ (10F)

    Pathos- A type of emotional appeal in this section is a rhetorical question.
    “In fact, the conduct of an accountable being must be regulated by operations of its own reason; or on what foundation rests the throne of God?” (10D)

    Brief Analysis:
    The argument in this section is to state former points made in the rest of the piece. A few rhetorical questions are used, merely to prove the obvious. However, the simplicity of these questions is what makes these points so basic, since after all it is human nature. The logical appeal found in this section is examples, like referring to a King’s rule over his people, and China’s “men of glory” or “gods” so to say. This shows the tyranny of a man over all mankind, and womankind, and despite both genders being subject to the same life, women are kicked down the social ladder. The ethical appeal is based on the author’s reverence towards God, who she believes that He is the only being that she and other oppressed women should depend upon.

  46. Graham Key and Mark Hosseini

    Word Definitions*

    6C- Dissimulation is defined as “the act of dissimulating; feigning; hypocrisy”.
    6E- A seraglio is “the part of a Muslim house or palace in which the wives and concubines are secluded; harem”.
    6E- An epicure is “a person who cultivates a refined taste, especially in food and wine; connoisseur”.

    *All definitions were taken from http://www.dictionary.com

  47. Ben Li and Vishal Kalbavi

    Logical appeal: Wallstonecraft uses concessions and refutations as logical appeal in this section. She presents Dr. Gregory’s treatise from his Father’s Legacy to his Daughters when she writes that “he actually recommends dissimulation, and advises an innocent girl to give the lie to her feelings, and not dance with spirit, when gaiety of heart would make her feel eloquent without making here gestures immodest.” Wallstonecraft however presents this concession with a negative connotation and then refutes it by writing “[i]t is not natural” and “that the heart should be made clean, and not trivial ceremonies observed.”

    Emotional Appeal: Wallstonecraft uses connotative language as her major vehicle of emotional appeal in this section. Coupled with a rhetorical question, she writes “[c]an they supinely dream life away in the lap of pleasure, or the langour of weariness, rather than assert their claim to pursue reasonable pleasures and render themselves conspicuous by practising the virtues which dignify mankind?” The language brings shallow pleasure to contrast with reason and virtue to create emotional appeal.

    The logical concession and refutation becomes more powerful with the application of the connotative language. That refutation argues for women to break free of stereotypes advocated by Dr. Gregory. Wallstonecraft’s arguments are largely defended and based in her ability to “look to her own life history and to the lives of women in her family” (About.com) through the lens of the Enlightenment revolution.

  48. Graham Key and Mark Hosseini

    6A- Dr. Gregory did not raise his daughters properly.
    6B- “Feminine” practices and habits, such as the “fondness for dress”, are unnatural and encouraged by men, rather than natural female inclinations.
    6C- Why must a woman hide the true feelings and potential of herself when the only gain are positive opinions that she does not truly desire?
    6D- Women should not have to appear weak and submissive in order to get affection from their husbands, rather, their husbands should love and respect women for their capabilities.
    6E- Life is too short for women to allow themselves to be used as objects of pleasure or beauty, rather than pursue meaningful goals and manly virtues.
    6F- A woman who projects her strength of mind and body will neither depend solely upon her husband, nor require beauty or a gentle demeanor to excite passion in her spouse.
    6G- Dr. Gregory’s advice is bad because there is no way to have a constant love for your partner because the degree of love fluctuates; having a true friendship with your husband is most substantial, and more unusual.
    6H- It is true that the “most holy band of society is friendship”, this should not be questioned on any set of moral standards.

  49. Mark Hosseini & Graham Key

    Logos – The author gives example of men who have fought appealed women’s rights such as Dr. Gregory and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
    “The worthy Dr. Gregory fell into a similar error. I respect his heart; but entirely disapprove of his celebrated Legacy to his Daughters.”

    Pathos – The author uses rhetorical questioning.
    “But have women so little ambition as to be satisfied with such a condition?”

    The author of this piece is very strong in terms of persuasion. She has a good balance of all three rhetorical appeals.
    She consistently uses logical appeal as she refutes well-known male philosophers theories of the female sex and using techniques such as personification and metaphorical statements to enhance the statement of her opinions.
    She uses emotional appeal by giving readers rhetorical questions and allusions to situations that many women are in to convince readers of what the right moral decisions are (regarding women’s rights.) She also uses parallelism and anadiplosis at times to emphasize her key points.
    Mary Wollstonecraft is known as the “mother of feminism.” She dedicated her life’s work revolutionize women’s rights. In Vindication of the Rights of Women, she has very harsh-toned opinions for her stance and strong refutations for those who oppose her.

  50. michaelmarn

    Wollstonecraft uses pathos in section 10D when she says that “I love man as my fellow; but his scepter, real, or usurped, extends not to me, unless the reason of an individual demands my homage…” This affects the audience’s emotional appeal because as they are reading the text, they feel somewhat sympathetic towards Wollstonecraft and all women because they love men but the men do not show any emotion back.
    Wollstonecraft’s effect on ethos is very strong because, in my mind at least, she is a very important person when talking about the women’s rights movement. She was a big part of earning rights for women and can be a very credible source. She is a woman, however, and so her perception on the topic is highly bias towards women. But with all that said, I think she is still very influential because of who she is.
    Logos comes up in Wollstonecraft’s piece when she is talking about women’s lack of education. That is a fact because very few women of that time period were allowed to have an education.

  51. 8a: If a woman expands her goals past just becoming a wife, she will become a more virtuous person and will care less about the shortcomings of her husband.
    8b: Experience makes a much greater impact than suggestion.
    8c: Women should educate themselves to be able to sustain themselves being single, but they should not develop a taste in men.
    8d: Education and reasoning should be based on logic alone.
    8e: According to stereotypes, a woman must endure hardships in order for her to receive protection.
    8f: Women are viewed as being made to entertain men in today’s (1700’s) society.
    8g: A woman should not be gentle to the point of being disrespected.

  52. (disregard last comment)
    8a: If a woman expands her goals past just becoming a wife, she will become a more virtuous person and will care less about the shortcomings of her husband.
    8b: Experience makes a much greater impact than suggestion.
    8c: Women should educate themselves to be able to sustain themselves being single, but they should not develop a taste in men.
    8d: Education and reasoning should be based on logic alone.
    8e: According to stereotypes, a woman must endure hardships in order for her to receive protection.
    8f: Women are viewed as being made to entertain men in today’s (1700’s) society.
    8g: A woman should not be gentle to the point of being disrespected.

  53. Jiyong and Emily

    Sceptre- To invest with authority

    Usurp- To seize or hold by force

    Congenial- Agreeable, Suitable, or pleasing in nature.

    Antiquity- A specified historical period during the ancient past.

    Subjugate- Bring under domination or control.

    Insipid- Lacking qualities that excite, stimulate, or interest.

  54. 8B/8D: Dr. John Gregory was a Scottish physician, medical writer, and also a moralist in the eighteenth century. In 1761 he wrote Father’s Legacy to his daughters to honor the death of his wife. After his death in 1771, his son James published it and became a best seller.

  55. Aaron Jacobs and Kevin Jackson

    Paragraph 2A: Mary Wollstonecraft alludes to John Milton’s Paradise Lost: Book VIII in order to support her claim that it is only natural for mankind to question his upbringing.
    2B: Wollstonecraft attempts to compare society’s treatment of woman to God’s intention for the treatment of women.
    2C: From an early age, mankind is taught how to treat one another and it becomes apparent that men have the upper hand.
    2D: Women are doomed to never form education but conform to the roles that are assigned to them.
    2E: The purpose of education is to make one independent and virtuous.
    2F: She states her opinion that writers who have contributed to the subject have portrayed women as weak.
    2G: Husbands and their wives are simply overgrown children, so women should not have to follow their husbands.

    • Aaron Jacobs and Kevin Jackson
      People References:
      John Milton, Paradise Lost Book VIII. 2A.
      Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Emile. 2EFG. Wollstonecraft challenges his negative characterization of women.
      Dr. John Gregory 2F. Wollstonecraft categorizes him with Rousseau in saying that he contributed to “[rendering] women more artificial, weak characters.”

    • Aaron Jacobs and Kevin Jackson
      Vocabulary:
      Sanguine, 2D: Cheerfully optimistic, hopeful
      Expostulate, 2A: To reason with someone against something they have done or intends to do.

  56. Paltry- Utterly worthless.
    Forbearance- Refraining from enforcement of something.
    Deity- A god or goddess.
    Grandeur- The state of being impressed.
    Vapid- Lacking sharpness or flavor.
    Melioration- Semantic change in a word to a more approved meaning.

  57. Audrey Gotko and Alyssa Trethewey

    Summaries
    9A: The author is disgusted by the way men try to soften their insults and also that women are taught to believe they don’t deserve the respect of man or must suffer as being seen as one.
    9B: Men believe that women need to remain week and under them, and women have been taught to accept this fact, but Mary Wollstonecraft gives proof in history that the weakest animals die off and cannot live.
    9C: In order for women to be respected by men, the whole sex must gain knowledge and strive for their equal rights.
    9D: In the future, the time will come for women to make the choice to either become the friend or slave to man and it is up to them to make the initiative for change.
    9E: In human nature, people sacrifice virtue for convenience, but they need it for a long and fulfilling life.
    9F: If the women are never going to push for equality, then they don’t deserve to have freedom and the intelligence to do it.
    Footnotes
    9A: Mahomet’s Coffin- Refers to a legend that says that the coffin is only suspended by magnets and loadstones in his tomb, not by visible supports.
    9B: Isaac Newton- Discovered the concepts of gravity that were before unconsidered entirely by humans.
    9E: This quote is from Hans Carvel by Matthew Prior, who was an English Poet.
    Definitions
    9A: Criterion – a standard of judgment or criticism and a rule for evaluating or testing something.
    Archetype – A prototype or original pattern where all things of the same type are copied from.
    Appeals
    The major type of logical appeal is co. One quote is “they have neither the unerring instinct of brutes, nor are allowed to fix the eye of reason on a perfect model. They were made to be loved, and must not aim at respect”.
    One type of emotional appeal is a rhetorical question. One example of a rhetorical question found in this section is when the author says, “Do passive indolent women make the best wives?”
    An example of ethical appeal is the fact that the author has a large background for advocating female rights and has considerable knowledge of the topic at hand.
    Mary Wollstonecraft is very persuasive with writing this paper. She uses large amounts of logical, emotional, and ethical appeals while writing her piece. Also, she uses many allusions to historical people. In addition, her life and the lives of those around her give Wollstonecraft enough information to make a definitive statement about her beliefs.

  58. The major logical app eal that Wollenstonecraft uses is concessions and refutations. For example, “People of taste, married or single, without distinction, will ever be disgusted by various things that touch not less observing minds. On this conclusion the argument must not be allowed to hinge; but in the whole sum of enjoyment is taste to be denominated a blessing.” (8C)

    The major emotional appeal Wollenstonecraft uses in this peace is figurative language. An example of figurative language would be in 8E. “Gentleness, considered in this view point, bears on its front all the characteristics of grandeur, combined with the winning graces of condescension; but what a different aspect it assumes when it is the submissive demeanor of dependence, the support of weakness that loves, because it wants protection; and is forbearing, because it must silently endure injuries; smiling under the lash at which it dare not snarl.” (8E)

    Wollenstonecraft uses logical, emotional, and ethical appeal to make her argument persuasive. Although she does not directly appeal to authority, outside references do. Mary Wollenstonecraft was a successful philosopher and intellectual who is often times credited with starting the feminist movement. She uses logical appeal to validate her argument in this piece. An appeal to logic in her book is when she frequently creates a hypothetical woman as an example of the stereotypical woman of her time. An example of this is in 8C: “That a proper education… …substance for a shadow.” The reason emotional appeal is because it captivates the reader’s attention. An example of emotional appeal is 8E, when she uses the metaphor: “abject as this picture appears, it is the portrait of an accomplished

  59. Aaron Jacobs and Kevin Jackson
    Appeals
    The major type of logical appeal in this piece is the compare/contrast she provides between men and women.
    2E: “…opinion respecting men: I extend it to women, and confidently assert that they have been drawn out of their sphere by false refinement…”
    The major type of emotional appeal in this piece is rhetorical questions, as she doesn’t really use any of the other types, unless the following quote is counted as a Biblical allusion.
    2D: “…for if but one being was created with vicious inclinations, that is positively bad, what can save us from atheism? or if we worship a God, is not that God a devil?”
    The overall argument is very persuasive. Wollstonecraft has good ethical appeal: she is well qualified to write on women’s rights, as she watched her mother be bullied by her father, she helped her sister escape an abusive husband, and witnessed the French Constitution give rights only to men of the age of 25. Also, she is a qualified writer, as she was a adviser to Joseph Johnson, and also was a regular contributor of articles. Additionally, her logical appeal is written very well, as she backs up each claim with evidence, and in some cases, emotional appeal assists this as well.

  60. Audrey and Alyssa

    Summaries
    9A: The author is disgusted by the way men try to soften their insults and also that women are taught to believe they don’t deserve the respect of man or must suffer as being seen as one.
    9B: Men believe that women need to remain week and under them, and women have been taught to accept this fact, but Mary Wollstonecraft gives proof in history that the weakest animals die off and cannot live.
    9C: In order for women to be respected by men, the whole sex must gain knowledge and strive for their equal rights.
    9D: In the future, the time will come for women to make the choice to either become the friend or slave to man and it is up to them to make the initiative for change.
    9E: In human nature, people sacrifice virtue for convenience, but they need it for a long and fulfilling life.
    9F: If the women are never going to push for equality, then they don’t deserve to have freedom and the intelligence to do it.

  61. Audrey and Alyssa

    Footnotes
    9A: Mahomet’s Coffin- Refers to a legend that says that the coffin is only suspended by magnets and loadstones in his tomb, not by visible supports.
    9B: Isaac Newton- Discovered the concepts of gravity that were before unconsidered entirely by humans.
    9E: This quote is from Hans Carvel by Matthew Prior, who was an English Poet.

  62. Audrey and Alyssa

    Definitions
    9A: Criterion – a standard of judgment or criticism and a rule for evaluating or testing something.
    Archetype – A prototype or original pattern where all things of the same type are copied from.
    Appeals

  63. Audrey and Alyssa

    Appeals
    The major type of logical appeal is co. One quote is “they have neither the unerring instinct of brutes, nor are allowed to fix the eye of reason on a perfect model. They were made to be loved, and must not aim at respect”.
    One type of emotional appeal is a rhetorical question. One example of a rhetorical question found in this section is when the author says, “Do passive indolent women make the best wives?”
    An example of ethical appeal is the fact that the author has a large background for advocating female rights and has considerable knowledge of the topic at hand.
    Mary Wollstonecraft is very persuasive with writing this paper. She uses large amounts of logical, emotional, and ethical appeals while writing her piece. Also, she uses many allusions to historical people. In addition, her life and the lives of those around her give Wollstonecraft enough information to make a definitive statement about her beliefs.

  64. Devon Beck and Michael Keenan

    Summaries:
    1A: Men and women should be able to acquire virtue in different ways, but it seems that there is only one way to do so.
    1B: Most women are kept ignorant for their whole lives.
    1C: The author doesn’t understand why women are thought to be formed solely for the pleasure of men.
    1D: Men try to keep women ignorant and unenlightened.
    1E: Children are the only exception when clarifying that all women should not be ignorant.
    1F: Until one is mature enough to understand the author’s concepts, they must rely in God.

    • Devon Beck and Michael Keenan

      Mrs. Martin, we wrote this comment late because we thought that we published it during class on Tuesday but apparently, it never finished loading properly before we logged off. Sorry for the late comment!

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